Tragedies – S17.1

Click on the title of Rob Leathern’s article Escaping the Tragedy of the Commons, and read what he has to say about overfishing and internet adblockers. Come back to this post and make a comment below on some aspect of his ideas. Then, return to this post in a couple of days to comment on a comment made by one of the other students in the class.

Your comments should reflect your thoughts on an issue raised in the article, based on your own prior learning and experience, as well as on the material we have covered in class.

If it is the first time you have replied to an article on this blog, then there will be a time delay before your comment appears, in order for me to give approval.

I look forward to reading what you have to say.


About Robert A. Campbell, PhD

Robert A. Campbell, PhD, teaches courses in change management, leadership, and organizational behavior, as part of the MBA program in community economic development, for the Shannon School of Business at Cape Breton University.
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58 Responses to Tragedies – S17.1

  1. Xiaojian Yang says:

    This article reminds me of a Chinese public service ad, many Chinese stars appeal the public that no trading, no killing. You may say that we do have the law forbid it. But the more limited the trade of rare wild animals, the poaching incentives will be more intense, and many animals will become increasingly scarce endangered. If you allow free farming, but the cost of farming can not be compared with the cost of killing just by one shot. Trading, in fact, is for both sides. I think that more is to the buyers – the public, to arouse their moral resonance, from the root causes and demand of market to reduce and solve the problem. Also, on the other hand, Individuals do what is in their own best interest, but fail to realize their actions have a small social cost. However, if more and more people do these actions, the small costs can add up to a big cost. So that is why the author said “Don’t catch too many. It’s that simple”.

    • Halo Chen says:

      I agree with your opinion, celebrities effect is a good sample of how to increase the effectiveness of every ad. Decrease the amount of consumers is the main solution of this situation, but I think the quality of ads also need to be developed, because lots of boring ads are killing the effectiveness of this public ad. The ads marketing also need to be pointed out in this problem.

  2. Weimiao Wang says:

    With the rapid development of technology and economy, the contemporary era now facing five major problems include the world population growth, food shortages, environmental pollution, energy shortage and resource destruction that have severe impact on human life and social economic development. Realizing the strategy of sustainable development is an effective way for the world to overcome the negative influence of the traditional mode of development on the natural ecology and environment. The sustainable development should put forward as a long-term development strategy and mode support for environment and natural resources, with special emphasis on the importance and necessity of environmental carrying capacity and sustainable use of resources. Based on these, during the period that there is a contradiction between the limited energy supplies and the dramatically increased energy demands, it is imperative to formulate effective rules to promote the sustainable development.

    • Xiaojian Yang says:

      Exactly. But not everyone thinks like this way. Because of capitalism and egoism, the businessman will be forced to maximize their profit. It is not easy for them to watch other people wantonly plunder public resources to make more profit which leads to the company who has the high level of ethic in a weak position.

      • YUE LEI says:

        The primitive accumulation of capital must be the plundering of resources. The overall resources are limited, and if the average distribution of the whole society, everyone can get only part of the demand to meet the benchmark. For those who seek “higher” goals, it is necessary to use a variety of means to obtain more resources, no matter what means, eventually belong to “plunder.”

  3. YUE LEI says:

    Human beings in the process of promoting industrialization, on the one hand to create a wealth of material wealth, on the other hand there are plundering of natural resources, destruction of the ecological environment of the phenomenon, and increasingly serious. To deal with the relationship between economic development and ecological protection, that is, to coordinate the development of material civilization and ecological civilization. Material civilization and ecological civilization are two aspects of contradiction and unity. We must adhere to the organic unity of material civilization and ecological civilization, while accelerating the construction of material civilization at the same time, increase investment in ecological environment construction, strengthen the monitoring of the ecological environment, environmental pollution control and protection of the ecological environment. We should form an industrial structure, growth mode and consumption pattern that conserves energy resources and protects the ecological environment, insists on the development of production, builds a resource-saving society, economic development and population resources and environment to achieve sustainable economic and social development.
    To increase the supervision of laws and regulations. Laws and regulations are an effective way to regulate people’s behavior. At present, although countries have promulgated and implemented a series of laws and regulations such as resources and environmental protection laws, but the supervision of these laws and regulations, the role of people’s norms play is not comprehensive. On the one hand, we have to severely punish the behavior of the environment for the sake of self-interest. This is not just to let the offenders get the sanctions they deserve, but also to alarm the people, warning people to respect the dignity of the law and aware of the environmental problems of our own survival problems, is a major issue related to the interests of everyone. On the other hand, we have to develop more detailed laws and regulations, according to the economic and social development, with a mandatory way to save the planet we live on. In addition, the promotion of environmental protection publicity is also a link can not be ignored, to make the awareness of environmental protection more deeply rooted, so that people from the heart to realize this serious problem.

    • Austin Jiang says:

      I strongly agree with your perspectives. Law plays an indispensable role in this issue. If there are some rules which can limit the fishing and consumers, people can find the balance between environment and profits. Afterward, another important element is cooperation.If different organizations can collaborate and share the resources with each other, they will enhance the efficiency of tuna protection.

  4. Yan Xu says:

    The article talks about the tragedy of the commons, in other words, free access and the unlimited demand for the open resources resulted in resources over-exploitation. It comes to the problem how do we manage our public resources. Normally, natural resources have their own control mechanisms. However, if people get involved in the chain and over-exploit, the balance will be broke. The author gives us an example of our online attention as a kind of limited resources. People created the filter to block the ads for stopping the overuse of attention no matter is useful or useless to us. In the case of catching Bluefin, we can not just stop catching, instead, we should try to not catch to much. It means we should manage and regulate the resources with the goal of maintaining sustainability. It reminds me when we talk about social leadership. We are trying to achieve the balance among economic, environmental and social aspect. The actors, including government, fisherman and consumer, as a part of this tragedy need to take the responsibility to manage and regulate the use of the commons.

    • Halo Chen says:

      Also, I think finding an alternative food, which has a healthy cycle, is another way to solve this problem. Like what the diamond enterprises did in the past decades, we can encourage people who loves eating bluefin tuna to eat other foods, it can reduce the demanding pressure of this fish, also can share the risks of this fishing market.

      • Wenyuan(Simon) Fan says:

        Interesting idea of the new replacement of tuna! It does look like a potential solution but almost to make it ture since it requires decades to change our taste habits. Furthermore, the more important reason of overfishing is due to the demand of consumers. Leading and changing the fish consumption habit may be another angle to see the problem.

      • Yang Peng says:

        Yes, I agree with u, finding an alternative food instead of Pacific bluefin tuna. This can be a good protection of the number of Pacific bluefin tuna to make it back to before.

    • Danqi Li says:

      Absolutely, natural environment has specific mechanisms. If people over-exploit resources without limitation, the balance will be breaking. On the other hand, economic, environmental and social aspects are necessary to consider because there are many diverse actors get involved in the tragedy of Commons. As you point out in the case of Bluefin, government, fisherman and consumer play distinct roles in commons and every one of them has the responsibility to balance the use of resources and protect them from deteriorating. For example, government can manage and regulate the use of the commons through coercive and non-coercive means and has responsibility to make sure that the regulations have a correct and an effective implementation. Fishermen must follow the rules that the government promulgated and stop endless plundering to reduce the quota and make the fish sustainable. For consumers, less demand is a basic way to decrease over-exploitation. In simple, the definition for property rights and privatization are better solutions. We can sell open resources off as private property or keep them as common property but allocate the right to go into them. We cannot image that people who calculate for short-term goal but ignore long-term greater benefit continue to exploit in an environment without rules, property rights system, and enforcement. Therefore, in order to tackle the ecological challenge and keep a sustainable development, we need to keep every factor in an appropriate dimension.

      • Caroline Holway says:

        As you point out, “in the case of Bluefin, government, fisherman and consumers play distinct roles in commons and every one of them has the responsibility to balance the use of resources and protect them from deteriorating.” I concur. Reading Doppelt reminds me that there is no technical fix. The onset of over-fishing and the depletion of Bluefin tuna stocks began in the 1990s. Nations should have found a solution within a generation (20 years). This type of growing environmental degradation is one of the reasons for the emergence of sustainable development. Doppelt believes that a change in mind-set is required. Altering the thinking, assumptions, and beliefs that have led to the way organizations, including government, industry, and household consumers, is a powerful level of successful change toward sustainability. First and foremost, values and beliefs need to be altered.

    • Danqi Li says:

      Absolutely, natural environment has specific mechanisms. If people over-exploit resources without limitation, the balance will be breaking. On the other hand, economic, environmental and social aspects are necessary to consider because there are many diverse actors get involved in the tragedy of Commons. As you point out in the case of Bluefin, government, fisherman and consumer play distinct roles in commons and every one of them has the responsibility to balance the use of resources and protect them from deteriorating. For example, government can manage and regulate the use of the commons through coercive and non-coercive means and has responsibility to make sure that the regulations have a correct and an effective implementation. Fishermen must follow the rules that the government promulgated and stop endless plundering to reduce the quota and make the fish sustainable. For consumers, less demand is a basic way to decrease over-exploitation. In simple, the definition for property rights and privatization are better solutions. We can sell open resources off as private property or keep them as common property but allocate the right to go into them. We cannot image that people who calculate for short-term goal but ignore long-term greater benefit continue to exploit in an environment without rules, property rights system, and enforcement. Therefore, in order to tackle the ecological challenge and keep a sustainable development, we need to keep every factor in an appropriate dimension.

  5. Lori MacMullin says:

    The content of this article gives great examples of how people attempt, on one hand, to control a finite resource for the purpose of conservation, and rape and pillage it on the other hand, for the purpose of profits. There is a conflict between natural resource management policies issued by government departments, and those hired to enforce these policies because we live in a market driven capitalist environment where material wealth and prosperity are valued over nature. As stated in the article, illegal, underreported, and unregulated fishing contribute to the underground economy and impact GDP. Therefore, even at that level, there is a monetary benefit that we perceive, aids marginal groups. To many people, this makes the act ok because marginalized groups are able to support themselves better than they would if IUU was not happening. The author makes reference to the fact that government can’t regulate tuna migration patterns and therefore the fish end up in various countries and policies and approaches regarding fishing quotas conflict. I have to chuckle…maybe the government should have them line up in queue’s to make policy adherence a little easier. The bottom line here is that people, even those with the best intentions, commodify finite resources. Look at the number of small family farms that were either forced out of business or had no choice but to partner with or sell out to multinationals such as Cargill or Tyson Foods. No problem with nature in those environments as they have an abundance of genetically modified product ready for your table, and hey, check their financials, they are making money too! (Yes, I’m being sarcastic to prove a point).

    • Zhenghan Wang says:

      Yes, marginal groups may be able to support themselves better than they could if IUU was not happening is a long run. But is a short-term, fish as much as they can (legally or not) could bring more instant benefit for them. It is not difficult for human beings to understand the long-term benefit of effective sustainable fishery management, but the instant benefit is such a huge temptation that allures people to act shortsighted behaviors. That is not an easy problem to deal with.

  6. Zhenghan Wang says:

    This article actually talks about a dilemma: as we all know that “not catch too many” would be the simple solution of the tragedy of the Pacific bluefin tuna as well as other fishery resources, we do not have adequate means to implement this solution. If the problem is within a single country, maybe strict laws could be carried out by the government to make sure that no one could go beyond the limitation. However, it is actually an international issue, and there would be no such a powerful institute to lay down the law internationally as well as to implement it. It is true that some contracts and agreements could be made between different countries who are facing this problem, but the binding effect of such agreements are far less lower than internal laws. The people and governments from different countries may reach an agreements based on the common good of their future, but when back to the real operation, it can not be expected that they will carry out the agreement seriously. If one of the countries breaks the agreement, others may fell unfair and follow the example of the breakers. that is kind of vicious circle that no one would like to see.

    • Yuebin Liu says:

      Yes, I agree with you. Under this situation, I think that most of countries need to reach an agreement on how to protect the nature resources. On the other hand, they need to make a clear and strict punishment rules for the country which plundering of natural resources illegally. In addition, all of the people need to improve the awareness of the sustainable development. That is the most effective method to solve this problem. As we all know that, if we don’t have the “needs”, it will don’t have the “demand”. That means we can break the value chain.

    • Kieran Hanley says:

      I think it would be really interesting to learn more about how “international” or “maritime” law applies in the context of over-fishing. Is it an enforcement issue? Or is there no basic framework from which to even start? Given that the everyday person can get on Google Maps and see a satellite image with shocking detail, I suspect that the monitoring technology to identify illegal fishing has existed for quite some time.

    • jiahua yang says:

      just like you mentioned, most people know how to solve this kind of issue, but the most important is how to implement the solution. it is far more enough if the government makes some laws or some agreements are made. the point is to gather the people all over the world and keep this in the mind. if every consumer and buyers realize that the sustainable is necessary, this kind of issue will disappear soon.

  7. Liu Chen says:

    This article talks about people’s attempt for protecting natural resources. In recent years, with the development of society, people exceedingly consume natural resources, in order to get more profits. Although social economy is able to develop, it is at the cost of environmental damage. Overfishing is an great example to show the significance of this issue for people. Over-exploit broke ecological balance, and influence people’s lives.
    In this article, the author pointed out some solutions. It needs to be support by the public, include governments, companies, organization and the relevant practitioner. The government should undertake a social leader to guide people’s behaviour. Protecting environment not only depends on the government, because the government did not undertake all works. If we want to increase efficiency, the countries should change the system of economic development to carry out circular economy pattern and promote the sustainable development.
    Human economic development is a process which people continually ask for resources from nature. This is a economic system. With the development of human economy and society, the range of this economic system enter a zone that people never refer to the region, so the environmental issues are more and more serious. I think we should not damage environment before we curb environmental pollution.

    • Lori MacMullin says:

      I think your point about establishing “social” leadership/management/programs, within governments is a viable option that has not been done to an extent that would have an impact on resource conservation. The problem with this option is the values of the masses. The US is an example of this with the election of Donald Trump. People perceived his values to be in line with their own, with, much of his platform based on retaining/implementing jobs. A fine display, once again, of the “me” mentality. Reopen factories, save jobs, create employment to keep the capitalist wheel turning. We create knowledge, often, that is parallel to our own beliefs. Trump’s election platform, specifically in the Appalachian Region, accomplished just that. He constructed promises that appealed to the masses and their value system in that region, and then, adjusted his message accordingly based on his audience. Trump figured out their value system and acted on it to the point of abolishing the Paris Agreement. Values, of course, differ from region to region and we can see this by the pushback that California is displaying. Change, in any organization, must come from the top down. In class, we debate the point of leadership. Does it even exist, or are we referring more to management most times? I believe that leadership comes from the perceptions of others. In Trump’s case, his followers perceive him as their leader and they look to him for guidance and structure. He is at the helm so he must be right, right?

      • Weimiao Wang says:

        Hi Lori, thanks for your sharing, I agree with your point of we create knowledge and policies, that is parallel to our own beliefs, and change in any organization, must come from the top down. This topic can expanding to say as policy values that constitute the basis of public policy decision, it penetrates into the public policy decision making process.People’s behaviour is in constant change, same as the decision maker’s policy behavior, and this change is often completed through the adjustment from policy values to the policy behavior.

    • Peng Chen says:

      Nature conservation needs the joint efforts of all of us. So we need reduce bluefin eaten. Fishermen to reduce tuna fishing. the government needs to Develop policies to protect natural resources.Although the current society faces the difficulty, I think as long as you have efforts, then everything will be fine. balancing the needs of the development and sustainable development.

  8. Yuebin Liu says:

    At the beginning, plundering of natural resources is always the most fastest and effective method to get a higher GDP. However, it is temporary and unsustainable. So we can not use the “nature” to exchange the “money”. Nowadays, the resource destruction issue already became more and more serious all over the world. It already restrict human activities and society development. Under this situation, we need to consider about how to solve the problem and how to make a balance between “resources” and “economy”.
    Firstly, government need to make a stringent policy to protect the nature resources. Also it includes that making a clear punishment rules for the people who plundering of natural resources illegally. It will be an effective way to decrease the behavior that plundering of natural resources.
    Secondly, businesses need to have the responsibility for the society. As a business, they not only just to focus on the short-term profits, but also they need to pay more attention to the sustainable development.
    Thirdly, all of the people need to improve the awareness of the sustainable development. That means as a consumer, we do not to buy some goods which made by endangered species, such as shark fins and furs.
    Finally, I think that the plundering of natural resources issue already became very serious. So we must change our mind from now on, then we need to do our best to protect our earth. I hope that the earth will be more and more healthy in the further.

    • Liu Chen says:

      Yes, I almost agree with you, but the environmental issues are still an difficult challenge for developing countries. Because these countries mainly depend on the heavy industry or traditional industry to develop economy. Although clean energy technology provide some ideas for us, it cannot be used generally. The traditional energy are still main energy consumption, especially in the developing countries. The government should promote the use of recyclable resource, but it also need a process for a long time.

  9. Halo Chen says:

    I think the problem of bluefin tuna shows several strict cycle to us. Firstly,overfishing is the biggest problem of this situation, but, high demand is the core question about it. In my mind, the basic solutions of high demand are Government solution and consumers solution. Government can set a bunch of laws and rules to restrict demand and fishing, but I would say it’s. it the good solution, because the root of this situation is still here. Even though, it still can reduce the demand, if the punishment is too strong. In other hand, reducing consumers desire of tuna can be the best question. No demand, no trade. In this part, ad will be the best choice. Because of the lots of boring ads, they decrease the ad watching willingness of consumers, I would say, the advertising also need to be selected to play on the screen. It sounds like butterfly effect, uh? Actually, it is. The best resolution of every problem is to improve all standards of every thing. However, only for this bad situation, we just need to set rules and play a inspired ad to our consumers.

  10. Wenyuan(Simon) Fan says:

    This case remind me the topic raised by SDGs of the UN. Similar cases happened all over the world. There are a few points I want to address. Firstly, should we protect or hunt with limited numbers? If we look at African lands, a program called campfire was a successful example. Instead of protecting elephants from hunting, they allowed hunters to go to specific areas with a local guide and hunt specific elephants. Hunters need to pay a large amont of money and will have to leave the dead body for the community. Income of the community had been increased for better health care and education. On the contrary, some nations established national park and forbidden any hunting of elephants. The surprise fact was the total number of elephants living in the area of campfire program was increasing rapidly while the number in national parks reduced. Regarding this case, it is wise to rethink about the policy of fishing. Do we need to forbidden fishers or, just establish a sustainable system to allow them fish within limited are, time and numbers? Secondly, over half of the fishing are gathered under community resources, therefore, building proper community leadership as a bridge to manage and lead fishermen and cooperate with government and social science organizations to balance the need of community development and sustainable development.

    • shengxin wang says:

      Yes, I agree with you on the balance of community development and sustainable development. If there is no environment, we have nowhere to live. Also, considering you example on elephant hunting, I think that it is of vital importance to make real benefits to the local community not only hunting for fun. We need to improve existing regulations to protect the economy of local community, more importantly, to protect the lives there

  11. shengxin wang says:

    For rapid pace of economic development, countries all over the world are facing serious problems in various field. Humans face profound challenges over the next century-climate change, peak oil, a growth-addicted global financial system, gross inequity. In this special time, it is of vital importance to consider about the destination of economic development. In other words, how could we make economic development really beneficial to social problems all over the world.

    • ruoxi qi says:

      Yes, I agree with your opinion, we have sacrificed too much on environment, which is not the right way for sustainable development. We need to change the model. It will require the joint effort from people and countries all over the world. It is not a easy job and long-lasting.

  12. ruoxi qi says:

    There are two main issues I would like to talk about. The first one is environment. For better economy, the sacrifice of environment is inevitable. But considering the severe results of environment destruction, it is also significant to take some actions to slow it before we could prevent it. Tinkering with the status quo or embracing false positives will only slow the devastation, not prevent it;The second issue is social sector. Enterprises should take responsibilities to make contribution to the construction of local communities even though social enterprise is an emerging concept to some countries. Both the public sector and the private sector are discovering or rediscovering new opportunities to promote, simultaneously, entrepreneurial spirit and the pursuit of the public good

  13. Peng Chen says:

    As the population increases, the contradiction between human and nature becomes more and more serious. This article is a good illustration, human increasing demand for tuna. people will consume more tuna. so there is demand and will have a market. so there will be a lot of people in order to pursue interests maximize who won’t consider the ecological balance and the harmonious development of human and nature of a large number of fish, thus resulting in a decline in the number of tuna constantly, at risk of endangered. So this requires a government policy to protect the tuna. First of all, the size of the tuna should be limited and not too small.And during her spawning period, fishing is prohibited. Implement sustainable development strategy. Then, do some public service advertising to help reduce the consumption of tuna.for example, please some famous people, because they can influence more people. the Finally, a severe blow to illegal fishing. the government needs to reinforce the management. Following what we learned, if we want to protect tuna. we need a leader—government. To guide people reduce bluefin eaten and reduce the damage to nature. to guide people protect bluefin.

  14. Kieran Hanley says:

    This article generates two distinct responses from me, distinct as the topics of the tuna and the online advertising I suppose.

    In my home province of Newfoundland and Labrador we experienced something very similar to what is happening to the bluefin tuna – except with codfish. In the middle of the 20th century it was becoming obvious that the natural resource relied upon by Newfoundlanders were dwindling, but through inaction the resource all but disappeared by the late 80’s. Since the collapse of the cod fishery, many factors have been identified as contributors – but it all really boiled down to over-fishing. How does “the commons” play in to this? Well the fish of course didn’t necessarily confine themselves to Canadian waters. Just beyond the borders (and often inside them) awaited fisherpeople from foreign countries who were relentless in their harvesting even when Canadian science provided evidence that the stocks were being destroyed. But as these were international waters, these resources kind of “belonged to everybody” but in this scenario the worst possible environmental and economic outcomes prevailed.

    On the online advertising side, I cringed at the suggestion by the author that advertising be limited to only those that could pay the big bucks for the space. In a way, advertising on the internet has created a much more level playing field for businesses of all kinds and sizes. Those that are good at the strategy and targeting can be handsomly rewarded even with a small investment. Though one can look at the internet as being a form of ‘commons’, it is also important to remember that not everything in life can or should be free. If one is checking their favourite newsite three times a day, should there not be a reward of some kind for the creator of that content?

    • Lisa MacDougall says:

      Kieran, your summation of the collapse of the cod fishery is absolutely in line with the issues associated with the Blue Fin tuna crisis.
      I agree that the internet has created more affordable and targeted advertising opportunities. Although the value for the ‘paying client’ (businesses of all kinds and sizes)does exist, what I see more is the exploitation of platform users eg Facebook ads targeted to your personal posts,searches, etc. This ultimately creates a substantial revenue source for the Mark Zuckerbergs of the world and their respective shareholders.
      PS Apologies for not using “Newfoundland and Labrador” in my original post. I do know better.

  15. Tingyu Wang says:

    People’s insatiable appetite for fish is undermining the balance of the ocean – which will cut off the food chain and kill many marine lives; eventually, humans can’t avoid watching the fish delicacies disappear on the table. The problem is that 90% of the world’s large fish, as we often eat tuna, swordfish, COD, the most industrialized fishing, at the top of the marine food chain; when their number decreased, potential serious disruption to the food chain and the marine ecological balance, and threats and increase the chance of thin type of fish captured. The disappearance of fish affects not only the ocean, but also the fishing workers. I believe that if human beings continue to overfish and all economically valuable fish disappear, global fisheries will also become extinct on the path of overexploitation. We have to coexist with the ocean, the government should play social leadership, guide people to pay attention to environmental protection, limit overfishing, let the natural restoration of fish stocks, to ensure the sustainable development of Fisheries and the ocean.

    • Jiushen Li says:

      I agree with you that overfish will break the ecological balance. The human need to pay more attention to that. If not , global fisheries will become extinct on the path of overexploitation. And I think the government also need to make some advertisements to propagandize the knowledge of the environmental protection.

  16. Caroline Holway says:

    The first word of the title, escaping, strikes me as an interesting choice. Before continuing, I’m forced by some unconscious reaction to contemplate other words that might have been used in its place. Words like deserting, abandoning, and fleeing. Next, tragedy of the commons takes me back to discussions in Economic Geography, a class focusing on the spatiality of the economy. I ask myself why discussions about the tragedy of the commons are not very common. Has my Western upbringing impacted me to such an extent that the lens through which I see the world is obscured? To what extent does Garrett Hardin’s notion of being “trapped in a certain way of behaving” (which is a tragedy) apply to me?

    Hardin refers to the oceans of the world in his influential article in much the same way he describes pastures open to all. Five decades have passed and problems have escalated to a point where stocks of several marine species have been depleted. Illegal, underreported, or unregulated fishing, is a systemic problem worldwide. It is more serious in countries with weaker governance systems. Nations bordering on the sea take much of the blame while regulators come up with solutions. Catch documentation schemes are market-related measures that have been developed to combat ocean overfishing. While powerful nations like Japan and China continue to argue over regulations and quotas, the smaller developing island nations carry their burdens.

    Oceans (places of commons) have long been a source of not only Pacific bluefin tuna but also other varieties of fish that, according the WWF, are a major source of animal protein for 3B people. Globally ninety percent of people that rely on fishing as a source of income, live in developing countries. In terms of economic value, Leathern’s article refers to the Pacific bluefin fisheries as a $42B industry from catch to table. This amount is 3.5 times the $12B paid to fishermen. Following the tuna commodity, from catch to consumer, would uncover the fact that most of the wealth generated is left in the hands of three major profit-seeking firms. One such firm is Maruha Nichiro Corp. whose investors enjoyed a 20.6% one-year return in 2016 and the company’s earnings per share is a strong 293.5. Present day firms pursue their own best interest and until they, and their consumers, own the road to sustainability, regulatory systems, quotas, and frameworks for co-operation in the management and conservation of shared stocks will be nothing but a band-aide solution for a resource in crisis.

    Of note, the UN celebrated the first ever World Tuna Day on Tuesday, May 2, 2017. A headline in the Nikkei Asian Review read, “To celebrate World Tuna Day, eat anything else.” This is an opportunity to take action in an awareness campaign to reverse the current stock shortages and ensure sustainable management of tuna. If you feel strongly about the issues in this blog, mark this date on your calendar and inform the world.

    To end on an optimistic note, maybe one day there will be an end to the tragedy of the commons.

  17. Huanzhi Jia says:

    As a fishing enthusiast, I feel shame for those fisherman who have no license for fishing.
    Since I came here, I got the first fishing license and the hand book, I started building the sustainable fishing concept. At the beginning of my fishing life in Canada, I will take what ever I caught to home, but with the time moving on, I feel so bad for what I did before, because I read some fishing news which all talk about the certain species of fish are on the brink of extinction, just like the bluefin tuna mentioned in the article. Now, I familiar with all limitation of the fish around nova scotia. Atlantic salmon is under the really dangerous condition in nova scotia because of overfishing and the invasive species. I think the government should treat this thing seriously.
    Catch and Release,
    Fish for Future.

    • Jian Shen says:

      There is no injury without trading. I think that excessive market demand is an important reason for the extinction of certain fish. We need a concept of sustainable development. The government should take the lead in protecting wild animals. Not just administrative orders, financial support to protect the nature, also in the ideological, the government should guide the public which has the idea of the sustainable development of protecting wild animals. On the other hand, social media also play a significant role. Correct guidance of public opinion is very important,

  18. jiahua yang says:

    this article told us the tragedy of the commons. This is a very common issue happening all around the world, especially in the developing countries. in this article, since there is no restrict for this kind of resource, the individuals and the groups are motivated to maximize use of the resource. there are many factors which leads to the collapsing situation. although most people know the fish were caught before they had a chance to reproduce, they still can not set the fish quotas to stabilize the numbers. this makes the amounts of the tuna getting reducing rapidly. actually its not difficult to solve that kind of problem. just like the amanda nickson mentioned in the article,”all you have to do is not catch too many, its that simple”. besides, if we consumers and buyers are not buying this kind of tuna, i firmly believe the supply of the bluefin tuna will be lower. i have heard many kind of case like is. many countries in the middle east rely on the oil export. the main part of the gdp of the whole countries are closely linked with the oil. this may cause the collapse when the oil price is down. we all know someday the oil will be used up, these countries have to find out a solution that not rely on the oil any more.

    • Rujing Wang says:

      Yes, I agree with your opinion. The ocean plays a significant role in human life and development. There are many reasons for the pollution of the oceans, but the root cause is caused by humans. If we want to protect the ocean, we must start from the little things and improve the awareness of protecting the ocean. Just like China, people over-fishing and there is too much pollution. So, we should start from ourselves, protecting the environment is to protect our oceans. What’s more, bad air caused the destruction of the ocean ecosystem, and more of the living garbage drifted into the sea. We must not destroy the environment we live to develop business, otherwise, people would not be happy without a good living environment despite the economic development. Therefore, I hope all people can realize that we shall never destroy our living environment for the sake of business, otherwise, what we can leave to our later generations will only be a world beyond recognition.

  19. Rujing Wang says:

    With the increasing economization of society, people are having more and more demands on various commodities. Thus, an increasing number of factories are established. Some factories also put the industrial wastewater discharge into the sea and the living environment of marine life, marine pollution, global warming and overfishing lead to do quite a lot of fewer quantities of marine life and even extinction. In the class MBAC6223 which is another course, we have talked about before, almost half of the world’s oceans have been seriously affected by pollution and climate change. Ship pollution is the main cause of marine pollution, another pathway of pollution occurs through the atmosphere and air. After the ship’s pollution, some marine life is lost or changes its limb organ function and reproductive capacity. In addition, because the seawater is difficult to restore once the pollution, the living environment of marine life has also been damaged greatly. The oceans will also be seriously damaged by deterioration of the environment and air. China’s Marine pollution is very serious. Therefore, it is urgent for the Chinese government to take measures for environmental protection. Relevant policies and rules about the environmental pollution shall be developed immediately by the government, and specially-assigned persons should be dispatched at once to investigate and renovate all factories. For factories, not in line with regulations and having excessive exhaust emission, they should be forced to stop operation right now along with the fine for those causing severe pollution and the sentencing for relevant responsible persons. As far as I am concerned, only through the large amounts of fine for large factories and enterprises having illegal operation and the sentencing for responsible persons can all factories be warned, so that they can realize the serious consequence caused by exceeding emission and aware that they’ll have to pay the corresponding cost for their acts. Of course, it’s hard to manage this in China, because most factories in China are stated holding ones, that means these factories are open by governments. As for the Chinese politic aspect, the single-party system is adopted, so it is even harder to actually realize the mutual supervision. In the case of any internal problems, they are often resolved inside without the actual fairness and justice. Therefore, I think that only when the government actually attaches great importance to it and put environmental protection as the priority, can these measures actually work out.

    • Yan Xu says:

      I agree. Pollution from ships lead to some direct effects: damage to marine living resources, threaten human health, hinder the development of fisheries and other maritime economic activities, damage to the use of sea water quality, destruction of a beautiful environment, marine ecosystem balance has been destroyed and so many harmful effects. Ship pollution is transnational or international and can lead to more complex national jurisdictions. This feature is determined by the mobility of the ship and the natural fluidity of the ocean. The mobility of the ship determines that the contaminants brought by it cannot be confined or fixed at a certain point and are stationary. Pollution may spread to many islands or sea areas, and this will cause great inconvenience to the subsequent administration.

  20. Jiushen Li says:

    I want to talk about this article mentioned: “the simple solution.” Today, the social medium plays more and more important roles. Social media, by the way of being social, is composed of society or persons interacting with each other. Social media is a social instrument of communication, as it is described in the best way. Social media, by the way of being social, is composed of society or persons interacting with each other. Social media is a social instrument of communication, as it is described in the best way. Now that we know what social media is, we go to social media websites. Social media is broad and covers a lot of websites. Though there are a variety of social media websites, their most common denominator is that there is interaction to websites and visitors.

    • Yuanzuo Huang says:

      The point is to use social media as an instrument to spread the idea of projecting the tuna to all the users who use the social media. It is a great and inexpensive method to achieve the goal by the way that people repost the information voluntarily. The starting point is we need to a way to affecting people’ opinion, and the Internet and leadership are the paths to reach the target. Moreover, if we see tuna which is the tangible property as a kind of commons, the Internet also is common. Thus, we also need to maintain the Internet, where we can get the knowledge when we are using the Internet.

  21. Yuanzuo Huang says:

    From the content of the case, it shows us the problem of overfishing for tuna. “Do not catch too much” sounds simple, but it is not that simple to implement. Actually, the case through tuna reflects the way of how people treat the common property. From the nature of human, people will use the resource to benefit them maximumly if a piece of land owned by a group of residents. The result is the natural resource will collapse by overusing, and people will look for another one. The way to break the unhealthy circle is bringing the concept of “commons” in community economic development, the properties are owned by the community and the member in the community treat those as commons.The maximum gain is not to get huge benefits at one time; it should be getting the advantages as a sustainable way. Instead of only consuming the property, people also have the responsibility to manage and take care of properties. Therefore, control fishing is a short -term solution; the long-term is for changing perspectives of people. They will start to treat the resources differently when the sustainability became a root in their mind. Leadership is based on governance and social well-being. How to inspire thoughts and manage the behaviors will come the next goal to achieve.

  22. Jian Shen says:

    We have been accustomed to the first time as the moon when people see the earth, that the earth is still a blossoming cloud covered with a beautiful blue planet. But human activities have changed the natural environment. The global ecological environment has been lit red: 23% of the cultivated area is seriously degraded, 50% of the river water flow is reduced or seriously polluted,25% of mammals, 12% of birds are endangered,1/4 human suffering from disease and environmental degradation,1/3 land is facing desertification, 80 countries are seriously short of water and 1 billion people are threatened by desertification. So sustainable development is very necessary. While developing the economy, protecting the ecological environment also is very important. The government should be a leading role who undertake the responsibility to guide public activities. As a normal public, the environmental awareness also is necessary.

  23. Danqi Li says:

    The article reflects a serious dilemma: tragedy of Commons. Overfishing of Bluefin tuna is a reflection of the tragedy of the commons. Even though short-term gains have been made, the loss of common land is permanent. As an open resource, the common land has many owners who have the right to use and with the aim of maximizing their income. However, people have no right to stop others from using it and continue to use without control. Thus, uncontrolled consumption and excessive demand result in the over-exploitation and depletion of resources. However, the tragedy is that although everyone knows that the resources will be exhausted by excessive use, everyone feels powerless to stop the situation from deteriorating. Because open resource is difficult to define and free access and unrestricted demand for a finite resource, excessive depletion and competitive occupation will be the inevitable results. Unclear property right that is one reason of tragedy of Commons illustrates that every citizen has right to use resource but every one doesn’t possess it and every one should take the responsibility of protecting resource but no one is willing to accept responsibility. Our online attention author mentioned is a metaphor of tragedy of Commons. In order to avoid overusing attention, people filter or block ad no matter whether these ads are useful or not. This example also enlightens us when finding solutions for the tragedy of the Commons. Government can use coercive (law, regulation, and economic punishment) and noncoercive (education, ethics, publicity, and Religion) measures to restrict people and call on them to protect open resources, such as clear the ownership of resources or enterprises, and formulate appropriate policies and regulations to clarify responsibilities and obligations. In general, law or policy is an effective way to restrict people‘s behavior. It also applies to the case of Bluefin. However, don’t catch too many Bluefin tuna is a basic way because limiting numbers means less use of public resources.

  24. Yang Peng says:

    In fact, this is a very obvious relationship between supply and demand, because of the large demand for customers, resulting in excessive fishing on Pacific bluefin tuna. The excessive use and destruction of natural resources have been going on for hundreds of years. Since the beginning of the steam engine era, a lot of natural resources have been destroyed and because of the natural resources are limited. If we do not protect the limited natural resources, human extinction is a matter of time。

    • SHUTONG YU says:

      Yes, I agree with you. And I also think that the fishing industry needs to be restructured. There should be a moratorium on catching Tuna, Cod and other endangered species. The barbaric nets which scrape every living thing off the sea bed should be stopped for ever. There should be a number of no take zones at regular intervals with dracopnian power to seize fishing vessels which encroach on these areas. If we kill off our seas and oceans you will kill off the lungs of the Earth. There is a balance in the oceans which we disrupt at our peril.

  25. SHUTONG YU says:

    It is sad that most the wrongs in our world seem to relate back to short term profit, and not long term sustainability of the planet. People its obviously clear that politicians and governments across the world do not give a dam about the problem, they are far more interested in protecting their disproportionate way of life.
    In Canada there are too few fisheries enforcement officers to stop the overfishing, thus the quota system is just an honor system. Many captains will take their quota twice and sell the catch over the side to factory ships, before filling their hold for a third time and heading to port. The captain keeps half of the money for the illegal catch and the other half is split amongst the crew. This is common practice, or was until fish stocks were severely depleted.
    I hope rising fuel costs will make fishing for a living less attractive. This could help to replenish fish stocks, but it could go the other way because of more offshore oil drilling.

  26. Bo Jiang(Austin) says:

    This article makes me realize that the importance of human behavior. Positive behavior creates an excellent future and vice versa. Tuna is endangered. So what is the solution? one one hand, it is really a simple question. Because if people do not eat them, the volume of tuna will be increased. But on the other hand, the complicated question is that how to make people be aware of the importance of endangered species and how to limit the customers buying them. From my perspectives, it is about social leadership. Social leaders play a significant role in this issue. How to play their due role is the key factor of tuna protection. China has a famous advertisement which named “No deal, no killing”, it explains that the root of the problem. Leaders need to find the balance between benefits and community economic development.

    • LU NIE says:

      yes, I agree with you. According to my comment, I think it is the responsibility of the government. It is similar with the leadership. The govern should concern about this situation. It is a world wild problem, and all leaders in every country should be united as one and be concentrating their efforts on the effectiveness of actions and the results of the policy. The environment of the Earth will be better in the future.

    • ZhengQian Peng says:

      I really agree of your view. and i have a deep impression of the advertisement “No deal, no killing”. Ming Yao is kind of that social leader and that is what social leader exactly should do.

  27. LU NIE says:

    By reading this material, the environmental pollution around the world is serious and worse. Environmental problems are so diverse and diffused that virtually any activity of civilization interacts with the environment. Many environmental pollution problems are local in character and they can be controlled by creating environmental consciousness in each and every citizen.
    I think the government should do some actions for helping the Earth to develop sustainably. For example, the government can focus on the vehicle emissions and the carbon dioxide; reducing to use the fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides and other agrochemicals; reducing to waste water; establish some relative policy.
    I believe the environment in Earth will be better if every citizen around the world pay attention.

  28. Lisa MacDougall says:

    “Don’t catch too many. It’s that simple.”
    My initial thoughts of this article were of the collapse of the Newfoundland cod fisheries ultimately due to over fishing and mismanagement and the parallels of the Blue Fin Tuna. 1992 saw 40,000 people out of work due to the collapse of this industry in the province of Newfoundland. I wonder if we as a society will ever learn.
    As with governance and leadership, capacity building can also be used in the context of CED. If natural resources are not managed effectively and ethically, sustainability and economic viability are non-existent. Ideally resources are not ‘under or over’ utilized. Effective, enforceable public policy is paramount.
    I actually found it odd that over 75% of the article content was dedicated to the Tragedy of the Commons and overfishing of Blue Fin Tuna with the remainder of content switching to internet ad blockers and how Facebook has successfully controlled commercial messaging and user posts for media and consumer data. In my opinion, the author’s transition from potential environmental catastrophe to internet/social media monitoring was not necessarily smooth and perhaps only somewhat relevant. Perhaps the two subjects would be better served if divided and written about individually.

  29. ZhengQian Peng says:

    The article is about the crisis of Pacific bluefin tuna. there is a series of reasons that cause this problem, but the major reason I think is the demands of it. In the article, we can see, the problem is multinational problem, different country have different standards about it, numbers of company do this because their the economic value. So, in my opinion, it is difficult to solve this problem in government’s or company’s level, because they are all benefits from this industry. So, we should focus on the consumers and buyers, and it is the only way to protect the tuna. If there is no benefits of this tuna industry, then the industry will be eliminated. And for this reason, social leaders should be involved and make their effects.

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